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2012 changes

Beginning in 2012, test takers became subject to a new requirement that entails uploading a digital portrait for enhanced identification purposes. Subsequent critical commentary raised substantive concerns of racial and other discrimination because provided photos are obligatorily submitted alongside test scores in the admissions process.

Name changes and recentered scores

The name originally stood for "Scholastic Aptitude Test". But in 1990, because of uncertainty about the SAT's ability to function as an intelligence test, the name was changed to Scholastic Assessment Test. In 1993 the name was changed to SAT I: Reasoning Test (with the letters not standing for anything) to distinguish it from the SAT II: Subject Tests. In 2004, the roman numerals on both tests were dropped, and the SAT I was renamed the SAT Reasoning Test. The scoring categories are now the following: Critical Reading (comparable to some of the Verbal portions of the old SAT I), Mathematics, and Writing. The writing section now includes an essay, whose score is involved in computing the overall score for the Writing section, as well as grammar sections (also comparable to some Verbal portions of the previous SAT). The test scoring was initially scaled to make 500 the mean score on each section with a standard deviation of 100. The SAT was "recentered" in 1995, and the average "new" score became again close to 500. Scores awarded after 1994 and before October 2001 are officially reported with an "R" (e.g. 1260R) to reflect this change. Old scores may be recentered to compare to 1995 to present scores by using official College Board tables, which in the middle ranges add about 70 points to Verbal and 20 or 30 points to Math.

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